How to crack an hardcore dongle-protected program
by Shaman
Courtesy of Reverser's page of reverse engineering
Slightly edited by reverser+, 4 May 1998

Shaman's How to crack an hardcore dongle-protected program 04 May 1998
Hi. It's addon to the +HCU's Project 3. "How to crack hardcore dongle-protected program. Casmate 6.52 by Scanvec" I know many crackers who try to crack CASMATE v*6.* for windows, and some #cracking people think what it's impossible :-) This is a short manual 'how-to-crack' casmate v6.52. All casmate from v6.0, have the same protection scheme but with little differences. Casmate have 3 protection levels: I. HASP envelope II. HASP checks III. Security Lock number IV. Disable functions (depend of HASP memory) V. Full emulator VI. Greets ----------------------------------------------------------------------- I. Cracking the HASP envelope. First - casmate is protected by an HASP-envelope, read the +HCU's dongle project Ok, load casmate in W-ice Symbol Loader: cs:005a shr cl,1 ... look at the: cs:065d pop ds cs:065f call 1174 ; nothing interesting, you can nope it. cs:0661 call 213c ; decrypting code cs:0664 call 0725 ; run envelope check Yeah, second call procedure decrypt some block and third call execute it. Don't use breakpoint on execute (bpx cs:725)- you get GPF because casmate use some hints for decrypt code. This approach was described in many 'antidebug' essays. Do breakpoint on memory access to cs:725, w-ice is up at the next code: cs:21aa add [di+4],bx look at the begin of this block: cs:217a mov si,06d3 ; begin address of block to decoding cs:217d add si,bp cs:217f xor cx,cx cs:2181 mov cx,088a ; counter of bytes cs:2184 sub cx,6 ; dec last 3 words cs:2187 add si,cx ; get end address cs:2189 mov di,06d3 ; begin address cs:218c add di,bp cs:218e push ax cs:218f push bx cs:2190 mov bx,003d ; Oops! - first byte for XOR cs:2193 mov ax,cs:[di] ; get byte, look at the cs:21b2 cs:2196 add ax,bx ; decrypt cs:2198 mov bx,ax ; ... cs:219a ror ax,1 ; ... cs:219c and ax,8000 ; ... cs:219f add ax,bx ; ... cs:21a1 add ah,al ; ... cs:21a3 mov bx,ax ; ... cs:21a5 mov [di],ax ; put 1-st word cs:21a7 add [di+2],bx ; put (add) 2-nd word cs:21aa add [di+4],bx ; put (add) 3-nd word cs:21ad add di,6 cs:21b0 cmp di,si ; compare 'end?' cs:21b2 jb 2193 ; if 'no' then g 2193 (next step) ... if you _NOW_ put bpx cs:21b4 you get the decrypted block at cs:06d3, and can save it to disk, length of block 088ah (i use sdump95.exe for it). And what we get? - ok: cs:0725 mov ax,sp cs:0727 mov [c7c5],ax cs:072a move byte ptr [c7a7],0 cs:072f cmp word ptr [c7c3],0 cs:0734 jnz 0739 ; HERE! if you patch this jnz to jmp - you crack the envelope. btw - cas_win.exe say 'HASP plug not found', now it say 'Can not run CASmate-Pro: Plug not found'. how to do it: a) Decrypt block b) Patch jnz on jmp in this block c) Crypt this block d) Put patched block in ca_swin.exe First i wrote 2 program to decrypt/crypt code - stupid guy... Why? Because! - envelope crypt back code after all checking HAHAHA. Patch our JNZ, then do bpm cs:725 again and w-ice is up: cs:1dfa sub [di+4],bx ; look like "crypt back" code :-) cs:1dfd add di,6 cs:1e00 cmp di,si cs:1e02 jb 1de1 cs:1e04 pop bx This code is crypt back our block. Ok, clear all breakpoints, then do bpx cs:1e04, 'g'. W-ice up again, now, at address cs:06d3 is crypted block, length of this block 88ah bytes, but Aladdin coders are so lazy, you can easy patch 3 words back without any other change and casmate still work. Brr in words only high byte is changed, only 3 bytes, and 1 byte in 4 word (first next word) for correcting checksum in 'bx'. (Aladdin guys, if you are reading this, please learn the basic elements of cryptography before sending out your 'dongle protections' ;-). Patch in caswin.exe next 4 bytes: CAS_WIN.EXE 0003AB34: 74 EA 0003AB36: 73 FD 0003AB38: 8A 14 0003AB3A: 4A D4 That's all - envelope cracked. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- II. Cracking Scanvec protection. Uhums - Scanvec think what envelope is sux - that's right... and do some checks in casmate, ok. First - HASP has opened API entrypoint, find in cas_win.exe string 'HASPDOSDRV', then first JMP after this string: (use any hex viewer i like HIEW) 00022B2A: E933BB jmp 00002E660 this jump point to: 0002E660: 55 push bp 0002E661: 8BEC mov bp,sp 0002E663: 1E push ds 0002E664: 06 push es 0002E665: 56 push si 0002E666: 57 push di 0002E667: 55 push bp 0002E668: E9C244 jmp 000022B2D ; API entrypoint 0002E66B: 5D pop bp 0002E66C: 5F pop di 0002E66D: 5E pop si 0002E66E: 07 pop es 0002E66F: 1F pop ds 0002E670: 5D pop bp 0002E671: CB retf jmps at address 2e668 is HASP API, realy this is CALL, because after done each HASP procedure returned to 2e66b! if now you patch cas_win.exe like: 0002E667: CC int 3 0002E668: E9C244 jmp 000022B2D ; API entrypoint 0002E66B: CC int 3 and do 'i3here on' in w-ice, you can trace all HASP calls. W-ice will be up every time when program want to call ANY HASP functions. Old 'push bp' and 'pop bp' is non-critical code, forget about this... You need know some about HASP for trace HASP API calls - this is short description of _documented_ HASP functions: ------------------------------------cut--------------------------------------- HASP-3 LPT-key without memory MemoHASP LPT-key with memory (from 112 to 496 bytes) NetHASP[X] LPT-key with memory (5..100 users) networking TimeHASP LPT-key with memory (16 bytes) and realtime clock Ports: 378 = LPT When any function is called: BH = function number (Table 1) BL = port identificator (Table 2) Out from 3,4,6,32h,33h functions in CX placed 'Status Code' (Table 3) Table 1| ------- ͻ SERVICE CALL RETURN BH=FUNC, BL=PORT ͹ 1. AX : 0 - HASP NOT FOUND ISHASP 1 - HASP FOUND Ķ 2. AX=SEEDCODE AX : 1ST RETURN CODE HASPCODE CX=PASSWORD 1 BX : 2ND RETURN CODE DX=PASSWORD 2 CX : 3RD RETURN CODE DX : 4TH RETURN CODE Ķ 3. CX=PASSWORD 1 BX : DATA READMEMO DX=PASSWORD 2 CX : STATUS DI=MEMORY ADDR. (READ 1 byte at DI) Ķ 4. CX=PASSWORD 1 CX : STATUS WRITEMEMO DX=PASSWORD 2 DI=MEMORY ADDR. SI=MEMORY DATA. Ķ 5. CX=PASSWORD 1 AX : MEMORY SIZE HASPSTATUS DX=PASSWORD 2 BX : HASP TYPE CX : ACTUAL LPT_NUM Ķ 6. CX=PASSWORD 1 AX : IDLOW HASPID DX=PASSWORD 2 BX : IDHIGH CX : STATUS Ķ 32h. CX=PASSWORD 1 CX : STATUS READBLOCK DX=PASSWORD 2 DI=MEM.START ADDR. SI=BLOCK LENGTH ES=BUFER SEG. AX=BUFER OFFS. Ķ 33h. CX=PASSWORD 1 CX : STATUS WRITEBLOCK DX=PASSWORD 2 DI=MEM.START ADDR. SI=BLOCK LENGTH ES=BUFER SEG. AX=BUFER OFFS. ͼ Table 2| ------- ͻ Port_Num ͹ 0 1 2 3 101 102 103 Ķ all ports LPT1 LPT2 LPT3 3BCh 378h 278h ͼ Table 3| ------- ͻ Status Codes ͹ 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -999 Ķ Operation Time-out Invalid No HASP Not a Write Invalid succeeded address key found MemoHASP failed serice ͼ ------------------------------------cut--------------------------------------- Ok, now you can easily see what casmate want from HASP... in w-ice "i3here" then "g" look at cs:eip then kill all int 3 by NOP, type "bpx <address of first int 3> do "?eax;?ebx;?ecx;?edx;?esi;?edi;g;" reload cas_win.exe and run it (if you have key - it's SO easy)... After this use dlog.exe to extract log to file... cas_win.exe can use many dongles, i think this is different packs with different functions. (See [IV] in this manual). Ok, one right password is: cx:dx=03EBD:05A5B heximal. In log - 1. ISHASP 2. HASPCODE (some times) 3. HASPID 4. READMEMO All this operations 2 times. (rem: ISHASP does not need any passwords) now we can easy write an emulator and insert it to API entry address... 0002E668: E8C244 call 000022B2D why there CALL not jmp? - because now we can easy RET from our emulator, using RETN command... (see [V]) ----------------------------------------------------------------------- III-IV. Cracking 'Security Lock Number' ('SLN') Every casmate have unique 'SLN' i think for Software Support and Antipiracy... How to crack this security lock number: I get dump from HASP (use HASPED.EXE from Aladdin): 00000000: xx xx xx xx sl sl 00 00 FE FF FF FF FF FF FF FF ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ First CRC ^^ ^^ this is 'SLN' 00000010: FC FB FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 00000020: on on on on on on on on on on on on yy yy yy yy ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ Second CRC 00000030: on on on on on on on on on on on on on on on on ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ About 'on' see in description 00000040: FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 00000050: FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF zz zz zz zz ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ Third CRC 00000060: FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF ---[This info from Ignoramus - Thanks!] When CasMate reads from the dongle the memoryblock for the SECOND time, right after that memory checksums are checked - there are three DWORDS When you put a breakpoint into the dongle emulation code, you can trace it and find the real checksums. Then you can change the HASP ID (in emulation) or change some pieces of the memory (to enable the other options). Only thing you have to do is correct the checksums then. Key USE : ISHasp, HaspCode, HaspID, ReadBlock, probably ReadMemo as well sometimes (when you enable some options or have some errors in memory or so...) even WriteBlock... ---[End]--- All 'on' bytes - switch 'OFF/ON' casmate functions, if all 'on=FF - then all casmate functions is disabled, if 'on'= 00 then all casmate functions is enabled. You can change 'SLC', but casmate can't run after this, because he check 3 CRC-sum of blocks, don't forget to calculate correct CRC! Now we can change all 'on' to 00, 'SLN' to 00, then do breakpoint to memory access to CRC addresses and calculate 'right' CRC checksum. We get: 00000000: 78 4D 2D 28-00 00 00 00-FE FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF 00000010: FC FB FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF 00000020: 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00-00 00 A8 89 00000030: 00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00-00 00 00 00 00000040: FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF 00000050: FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-64 85 58 48 00000060: FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF-FF FF FF FF All features, SLN=0 and correct CRC's viola! :-) (rem: you can see enabled/disabled functions from casmate main menu, 'Misc' -> 'Register options') ----------------------------------------------------------------------- V. Full emulator in cas_win.exe 00022B2D: 90 nop 00022B2E: 90 nop 00022B2F: 90 nop 00022B30: 80FF01 cmp bh,001 00022B33: 750D jne 000022B42 00022B35: B80100 mov ax,00001 00022B38: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022B3B: B90000 mov cx,00000 00022B3E: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022B41: C3 retn 00022B42: 81F9BD3E cmp cx,03EBD 00022B46: 7508 jne 000022B50 00022B48: 81FA5B5A cmp dx,05A5B 00022B4C: 7502 jne 000022B50 00022B4E: EB24 jmps 000022B74 00022B50: 80FF02 cmp bh,002 00022B53: 7412 je 000022B67 00022B55: 80FF05 cmp bh,005 00022B58: 740D je 000022B67 00022B5A: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022B5D: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022B60: B9FDFF mov cx,0FFFD 00022B63: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022B66: C3 retn 00022B67: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022B6A: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022B6D: B90000 mov cx,00000 00022B70: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022B73: C3 retn 00022B74: 80FF03 cmp bh,003 00022B77: 0F859B00 jne 000022C16 00022B7B: 83FF38 cmp di,038 00022B7E: 720D jb 000022B8D 00022B80: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022B83: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022B86: B9FEFF mov cx,0FFFE 00022B89: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022B8C: C3 retn 00022B8D: E80000 call 000022B90 00022B90: 5B pop bx 00022B91: D1E7 shl di,1 00022B93: 03DF add bx,di 00022B95: 2E8B5F14 mov bx,cs:[bx][00014] 00022B99: 33C0 xor ax,ax 00022B9B: B90000 mov cx,00000 00022B9E: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022BA1: C3 retn 00022BA2: 90 nop 00022BA3: 90 nop 00022BA4: 784D js 000022BF3 00022BA6: 2D2800 sub ax,00028 00022BA9: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BAB: 00FE add dh,bh 00022BAD: FFFF ??? di 00022BAF: FFFF ??? di 00022BB1: FFFF ??? di 00022BB3: FFFC ??? sp 00022BB5: FB sti 00022BB6: FFFF ??? di 00022BB8: FFFF ??? di 00022BBA: FFFF ??? di 00022BBC: FFFF ??? di 00022BBE: FFFF ??? di 00022BC0: FFFF ??? di 00022BC2: FFFF ??? di 00022BC4: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BC6: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BC8: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BCA: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BCC: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BCE: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BD0: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BD2: A889 test al,089 00022BD4: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BD6: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BD8: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BDA: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BDC: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BDE: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BE0: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BE2: 0000 add [bx][si],al 00022BE4: FFFF ??? di 00022BE6: FFFF ??? di 00022BE8: FFFF ??? di 00022BEA: FFFF ??? di 00022BEC: FFFF ??? di 00022BEE: FFFF ??? di 00022BF0: FFFF ??? di 00022BF2: FFFF ??? di 00022BF4: FFFF ??? di 00022BF6: FFFF ??? di 00022BF8: FFFF ??? di 00022BFA: FFFF ??? di 00022BFC: FFFF ??? di 00022BFE: FFFF ??? di 00022C00: 64855848 test fs:[bx][si][00048],bx 00022C04: FFFF ??? di 00022C06: FFFF ??? di 00022C08: FFFF ??? di 00022C0A: FFFF ??? di 00022C0C: FFFF ??? di 00022C0E: FFFF ??? di 00022C10: FFFF ??? di 00022C12: FFFF ??? di 00022C14: 90 nop 00022C15: 90 nop 00022C16: 80FF32 cmp bh,032 00022C19: 753E jne 000022C59 00022C1B: 57 push di 00022C1C: 03FE add di,si 00022C1E: 83FF38 cmp di,038 00022C21: 5F pop di 00022C22: 760D jbe 000022C31 00022C24: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022C27: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022C2A: B9FEFF mov cx,0FFFE 00022C2D: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022C30: C3 retn 00022C31: E80000 call 000022C34 ---------- (1) 00022C34: 5B pop bx 00022C35: D1E7 shl di,1 00022C37: 03DF add bx,di 00022C39: 81EB9000 sub bx,00090 00022C3D: 8BCE mov cx,si 00022C3F: 1E push ds 00022C40: 0E push cs 00022C41: 1F pop ds 00022C42: 8BF3 mov si,bx 00022C44: 8BF8 mov di,ax 00022C46: F3A5 repe movsw 00022C48: 1F pop ds 00022C49: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022C4C: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022C4F: B90000 mov cx,00000 00022C52: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022C55: C3 retn 00022C56: 90 nop 00022C57: 90 nop 00022C58: 90 nop 00022C59: 80FF05 cmp bh,005 00022C5C: 750D jne 000022C6B 00022C5E: B80100 mov ax,00001 00022C61: BB0100 mov bx,00001 00022C64: B96600 mov cx,00066 00022C67: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022C6A: C3 retn 00022C6B: 80FF06 cmp bh,006 00022C6E: 750D jne 000022C7D 00022C70: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022C73: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022C76: B90000 mov cx,00000 00022C79: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022C7C: C3 retn 00022C7D: 80FF02 cmp bh,002 00022C80: 7531 jne 000022CB3 00022C82: 3D19F5 cmp ax,0F519 00022C85: 750D jne 000022C94 00022C87: B80100 mov ax,00001 00022C8A: BBB3D2 mov bx,0D2B3 00022C8D: B968F1 mov cx,0F168 00022C90: BA0100 mov dx,00001 00022C93: C3 retn 00022C94: 3D21BF cmp ax,0BF21 00022C97: 750D jne 000022CA6 00022C99: B80100 mov ax,00001 00022C9C: BBE044 mov bx,044E0 00022C9F: B90100 mov cx,00001 00022CA2: BA0E9D mov dx,09D0E 00022CA5: C3 retn 00022CA6: B81000 mov ax,00010 00022CA9: BB1100 mov bx,00011 00022CAC: B91200 mov cx,00012 00022CAF: BA1300 mov dx,00013 00022CB2: C3 retn 00022CB3: 90 nop 00022CB4: 90 nop 00022CB5: B80000 mov ax,00000 00022CB8: BB0000 mov bx,00000 00022CBB: B90000 mov cx,00000 00022CBE: BA0000 mov dx,00000 00022CC1: C3 retn Don't forget to insert CALL into API entrypoint: 0002E668: E8C244 call 000022B2D and crack envelope: 0003AB34: 74 EA 0003AB36: 73 FD 0003AB38: 8A 14 0003AB3A: 4A D4 That's all. Cut you porno pictures on CAM plotters ;-) ----------------------------------------------------------------------- VI. Greets Personal: KrK, NightIce, Vizitor, mr.Zimaman, stpark, hijaq, Fixit, Meteo, Creat0r, mr.f0x, PSH, Ignoramus, acpizer, _random, Marquz, Lordbyte, The_Owl, [bk], Tokz, Fossil, Goofer. Group : UCL - WOW we are the best UCF - Uh, you TOO ;-) Factor - newbies, but so good Siege - URRA! Pinnacle - Yahoo! Sodom - :-( so worry about you death. ...and all #cracking Peoples around the world. (x)'98 by Shaman E-mail: EfNet : #ucl'98, #cracking, #ucf2000...

You are deep inside reverser's page of reverse engineering, choose your way out:

homepage links redanonymity +ORC tools counter measures
students' essays cocktails search_forms antismut mail_reverser
Is reverse engineering legal?